The effect of incorporating method and concentration of niobium on the properties of barium titanate ceramics

Abstract: A series of undoped and doped barium titanate powders were prepared and examined by: X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, particle size, ?-potential, specific surface area, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy, and secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The doped samples were prepared by two different methods: (1) coating powders with chlorides and (2) mixing chlorides in a hydrothermal reactor. Different distribution profiles of the dopant atoms were observed for the two incorporation methods. Two TC peaks were detected by DSC for samples doped by coating. Analysis of electrical measurements revealed time constant distributions that were more spread in samples that had a core–shell structure.

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